Glands like the thyroid and parathyroids help your body perform a variety of important functions, but many common conditions can throw them off. They work by creating hormones, and problems can occur when they don’t make enough hormone—or when they make too much. Fortunately, diseases of these glands, which make up the body’s endocrine system, are very treatable. In many cases, the problem can be managed with medication, but often surgery is the only true cure for thyroid, parathyroid, and other endocrine diseases.
Our team of endocrine surgeons works closely with medical endocrinologists, oncologists, radiologists and many other specialists to determine if surgery is the best option for your particular case, or whether your condition can be managed through medications or watchful waiting.
To get started with top level endocrine care, call (212) 305-0444 or request an appointment online today.
Thyroid vs Parathyroid: What’s the Difference?
The names sound the same, but the thyroid and parathyroid glands are actually completely separate organs, with completely different functions in the body.
The thyroid gland plays a large role in regulating your metabolism. It affects things like body temperature, appetite and energy levels.
The parathyroid glands are actually a set of four glands, and their job is to control the amount of calcium in your blood. Having the proper calcium levels is important for maintaining proper bone density and nerve conduction.
So what do they have in common?
Well, since they both secrete hormones into the bloodstream, they’re both considered part of the body’s endocrine system, a broad term used to cover all of the body’s glands, including others like the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland too. Problems with glands usually manifest in one of two ways: they make too much of their hormones or too little. Like other parts of the body, glands are also vulnerable to cancer.
They’re also both located within the neck. Typically, the parathyroid glands can be found just behind the thyroid, with both sitting in front of the wind pipe (trachea). Procedures to treat either one require a thorough understanding of the delicate anatomy of this area, which is why surgeons need special training to take care of thyroid and parathyroid disease.
Overall, the similarities between the thyroid and parathyroid glands mean that endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons can treat both, but the differences between them mean that medications and treatments for one will not work for the other.
Our endocrine surgeons provide care as part of a team-based approach with their colleagues in medical endocrinology, oncology, radiology, pathology, genetics, and anesthesiology. Together, they lead comprehensive thyroid and parathyroid treatment centers that cover all aspects of care for any thyroid or parathyroid condition. Although our centers are based in New York, we are a resource for people with endocrine conditions throughout the United States and all over the world.
Columbia Thyroid Center
The Thyroid Center’s multifaceted approach to care for those with thyroid disease includes a same-day biopsy clinic, state-of-the-art, non-invasive nodule care, and a dedicated pediatric thyroid team for children. Our goal is to provide every service you might need in one place to make your care as expert and efficient as possible.
Columbia Parathyroid Center
Our surgeons provide parathyroid care as part at the Parathyroid Center’s team-based approach. Faster recovery, less noticeable scars, and overall high patient satisfaction underscore our team's commitment to care. Special services within our center include minimally invasive surgery, our pioneering Metabolic Bone Disease Unit, our advanced parathyroid imagining technology like the 4D CT scan, and a dedicated pediatric parathyroid team.
Columbia Adrenal Center
Disorders of the adrenal gland are less common than other endocrine conditions like thyroid and parathyroid disease but no less deserving of high-quality, comprehensive coverage. At the Adrenal Center, our endocrine surgeons help lead one of the most experienced Adrenal teams in the country. Specialized services within the Adrenal Center include minimally invasive surgery and adrenal venous sampling, an advanced technique to help diagnoses adrenal problems.
Our team is actively involved in researching the causes and treatments, as well as developing prevention programs, for all types of thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Current research includes exploring the use of artificial intelligence to help diagnose endocrine cancers and looking into new options for post-surgery discomfort relief.
Programs for Students & Healthcare Professionals
As part of a major academic teaching hospital, our division takes its role in educating and training new generations of endocrine surgeons very seriously. Our program has guided the careers of countless clinical and research fellows over the years, many of whom are now leaders in their own institutions and abroad.
Stories & Perspective
Chief of Endocrine Surgery James Lee, MD, explains the current state of the field and discusses coming advances. Read More »
Our endocrine surgeons provide treatment for people with any thyroid, parathyroid or adrenal conditions, including:
Thyroid Conditions & Treatments
- Graves’ Disease
- Hyperthyroidism (Too Much Thyroid Hormone)
- Hypothyroidism (Too Little Thyroid Hormone)
- Multinodular Goiter
- Thyroid Nodules
- Thyroid Cancer (Overview)
- Papillary Thyroid Cancer
- Follicular Thyroid Cancer/ Hurthle Cell Carcinoma
- Medullary Thyroid Cancer
- Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
- Thyroid Lymphoma
- Interventional Endocrinology
- Thyroid Surgery
- Thyroid Hormone Tests
- Radioactive Iodine
Parathyroid Conditions & Treatments
- Primary Hyperparathyroidism
- Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
- Parathyroid Cancer
- Parathyroid Surgery
- Re-operative Parathyroid Surgery
Adrenal Conditions & Treatments
- Adrenal Cancer
- Adrenal Incidentaloma
- Cushing's Syndrome
- Metastatic Disease to the Adrenal Gland
- Primary Hyperaldosteronism (Conn's Syndrome)
- Sex-hormone Producing Tumor
- Adrenal Surgery
If you need help for one of these endocrine conditions, call (212) 305-0444 or request an appointment online today.
James Lee, MD | Chief of Endocrine Surgery
Dr. Lee is an internationally recognized endocrine surgeon who specializes in the care of patients with thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal disorders. Dr. Lee is the Chief of Endocrine Surgery at Columbia University and the Physician Director of the Endocrine Service Line at its partner hospital, New York Presbyterian. He has been rated as one of the Best Doctors in America and is one of the highest volume endocrine surgeons in the country. Dr. Lee also serves in the senior leadership of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, the premier medical society for Endocrine Surgeons.
Jennifer Kuo, MD
Dr. Kuo is a board-certified surgeon-scientist nationally recognized for her expertise in the surgical treatment of thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Dr. Kuo is an accomplished, high-volume surgeon in minimally invasive surgical techniques, including trans-oral thyroidectomy and robotic adrenalectomy. She is the Director of the Interventional Endocrinology Program at Columbia and Director of the Endocrine Surgery Research Program. Her commitment to excellent, innovative, and personalized care has been repeatedly recognized by Super Doctors and New York Magazine's Top Doctor Awards.
Catherine McManus, MD
Dr. McManus is a fellowship trained Endocrine surgeon who treats thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. She completed her surgical training at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, during which she also earned a master’s degree in Clinical Research Methods from Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Dr. McManus serves as Surgical Director of the Thyroid Biopsy Program. She has received national and international recognition for her work and has won awards including the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) Top Ten Poster Award and the International Association of Endocrine Surgeons (IAES) Travel Scholar Award.
Eric J. Kuo, MD
Dr. Eric Kuo is a board-certified endocrine surgeon and Assistant Professor of Surgery who is skilled in the surgical treatment of thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal disease. His clinical interests include minimally invasive thyroid and parathyroid surgery, retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy and robotic adrenalectomy. His philosophy towards patient care includes compassion, shared decision making, and technically excellent surgery. His research has been published in journals including Thyroid, JAMA Surgery, and Annals of Surgery.
Our team is actively involved in the leadership of Endocrine Surgery at the national and international level, serving on all the major endocrine surgery associations and authoring hundreds of articles and book chapters, including treatment guidelines which set the international standard for patient care.
To make an appointment with our team, call (212) 305-0444 or request an appointment online today.
As with most types of surgery, the chance of having a successful and safe operation increases with the experience of the surgeon. In particular, endocrine surgery is a highly specialized field which requires significant experience to master.
When visiting a surgeon for thyroid, parathyroid, or other endocrine diseases, keep in mind that the specific title of the surgeon is not necessarily relevant to their experience. For example, a head and neck surgeon may not necessarily be an expert in parathyroid surgery. It is therefore important that you inquire about the surgeon's specific experience.
Do not be afraid to ask how many parathyroid and thyroid operations a surgeon performs each year and what their personal complication rate is. An expert will expect to be asked these questions and should not get offended by them. Research has shown that an endocrine surgeon should do more than 50 parathyroid and thyroid operations a year to be considered an expert. Use the chart below to determine the experience of your surgeon.
- Total No. of Thyroid or Parathyroid Operations: < 200
Experience Level: Inexperienced
- Total No. of Thyroid or Parathyroid Operations: 200-500
Experience Level: Intermediate
- Total No. of Thyroid or Parathyroid Operations: >500
Experience Level: Experienced
- Total No. of Thyroid or Parathyroid Operations: >1000
Experience Level: Expert
The endocrine surgeons at Columbia have each performed thousands of thyroid and parathyroid operations in their careers.
Call us at (212) 305-0444 or reach us through our online appointment form.
Documents and records can be faxed to us at (212) 305-0445 / (212) 305-3881.
Herbert Irving Pavilion, 8th Floor
161 Fort Washington Avenue
New York, NY 10032
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155 White Plains Road
Tarrytown, NY 10591
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- What to Expect at a Consultation
- How to Prepare for a Consultation
- What to Expect After a Consultation
- What to Expect – Your Surgery
- How to Prepare for an Operation
- Patient Form (PDF File)
- FAQs about Thyroid Surgery
- Thyroid Surgery: Day-Of-Surgery Guide (PDF File)
- Thyroid Surgery: Post-Surgery Guide (PDF File)
- FAQs about Parathyroid Surgery
- Parathyroid Surgery: Post-Surgery Guide (PDF File)
- Care after Endocrine Surgery
Stories & Perspectives
- State of the Union: Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Endocrine Surgery in 2020: Chief of Endocrine Surgery James Lee, MD, explains the current state of the field and discusses coming advances. Read More »
- What Kind of Scar does Thyroid Surgery Leave? Know what to expect from our minimally-invasive procedures by browsing through our Thyroid Scar Gallery »
- Living with Parathyroid Disease—Susan’s Story: What does paying it forward mean to you? For Susan Harris, it means sharing her story here, so that it may help reassure others who face similar circumstances. Read More »
- Curing a Rare Cancer—Danielle’s Story: Danielle was teaching music in a Virginia elementary school and planning her next vacation when she learned that she had a rare cancer called adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) arising in the outer layer of the adrenal glands that rest on top of the kidneys. Read More »
- Selective venous sampling—solving a hypertension puzzle: JM had been struggling for years to keep his high blood pressure under control. His endocrinologist recommended a test called selective venous sampling, and the results explained why JM's hypertension wasn't responding to typical medications. Read More »
- Columbia Thyroid Center
- Columbia Parathyroid Center
- Columbia Adrenal Center
- American Association of Endocrine Surgeons
- American Thyroid Association
- National Cancer Institute—Thyroid Cancer resources
- ThyCa—Thyroid Cancer Survivors’ Association
Call us at (212) 305-0444 or reach us through our online appointment form.
Here For You, Now More Than Ever
Even with the Covid-19 situation, we’re still here to give you the care you need. Our team is ready to provide virtual visits for any issue, and we have all the necessary precautions to safely do in-person visits for situations requiring an examination. Read about the lessons we’ve learned from the pandemic, and how they will help us give better, safer care than ever.
Call us at (212) 305-0444 or request an appointment online